EzDoum

찾기
처음으로 | 찾기 | 아카이브 | 글 올리기 | 링크 | 자료실 | 통계 | 연락처 | 자유게시판
이지도움 특집
전체보기
네트워크
TI OMAP35x
TI DaVinci
Analog Blackfin
RobotWar2005
임베디드!
캐쉬의 모든것
메모리 할당 알고리즘
CPU 파이프라이닝
자료구조(Tree)
금융

Login
이름

암호

기억하기


사용자 등록

현재 접속중인 등록 사용자는 0명, 익명 사용자는 3명 입니다.
전체 등록 사용자: 751명

마지막 답장
·libcurl + fuse 조합으로 되는게 많네. (1)
·Linux Ftrace에 관해 (3)
·Android MTP ( Media Transfer Protocol ) (1)
·Lighttpd에 인증을 digest 사용시 IE 오동작 문제? (1)
·Dtrace에 관해 (1)

최근글
·OpenSSL and multi-threads (0)
·ARM 환경에서 OpenCL 사용 (0)
·IoT용 WIFI 모듈 비교 ( MCU ) 클래스 (0)
·Glances - 리눅스 여러 가지 항목을 한 화면에서 모니터링 (0)
·plugin 방식의 로그 분석기 (0)

뜨거운 감자
·나는 인터렉티브한 환경에서 역어셈블 한다. (12)
·GNU REGEX (정규표현식) 프로그래밍 강좌 (7)
·SoCRobotWar 2005 - 신입생 기초 교육자료 (7)
·ASP.NET의 데이터 그리드와 사용자 컨트롤 (7)
·DHTML Editing Control (7)

가장 많이 읽은 글
·[Cache] 2-way Set-Associative 방식이란 무엇일까? (2)
·멀티쓰레드(Pthread) 프로그래밍
·Sorting Algorithm Animation (2)
·GNU REGEX (정규표현식) 프로그래밍 강좌 (7)
·SoCRobotWar 2005 - 신입생 기초 교육자료 (7)

리눅스 커널 공부하기
글쓴이: EzDoum 글쓴날: 2002년 04월 12일 오후 11:30




리눅스 커널 공부하기 by flyduck 2001/10/19

많은 분들이 커널 공부하는 방법에 대해서 묻습니다. 그러나 모든 공부가 그러하듯 쉽고 빠른 방법은 없습니다. 더구나 리눅스 커널이라는 복잡한 덩어리를 이해하려면 많은 지식과 경험이 필요하죠. 그저 오랜 시간동안 여러 자료를 읽고, 소스를 분석하고, 머리속에 체계화시키는 과정을 겪어야 합니다. 마음을 급하게 먹지 말고 재밌게 공부를 시작해보시기 바랍니다.

목차

1. 공부를 시작하기 전에
2. 리눅스 커널 전반에 대한 이해
2.0 기본 개념
2.1 메모리 관리
2.2 프로세스 관리
2.3 파일시스템
2.4 네트워킹
2.5 디바이스 드라이버
2.6 프로세스간 통신
2.7 하드웨어 메커니즘
2.8 기타 커널 메커니즘


1. 공부를 시작하기 전에
공부를 시작하기 전에 먼저 자신이 관심이 있는 부분이 어디이고, 무엇을 알고 싶으며, 무엇을 공부하지를 정해야 합니다. 전체적으로 동작하는 방법을 알고 싶을 뿐이라면 하드웨어적인 내용을 볼 필요가 없을 것이고, 파일 시스템의 실제 구현에 관심이 없다면 EXT2 파일 시스템의 내부 구조같은 것을 볼 필요가 없을 것입니다. 그리고 자신이 더 관심있는 분야에 집중하는 것이 좋을 것입니다. 네트웍 구조에 관심이 있는데, 메모리 구현 코드를 볼 필요는 없을 것입니다.
다음으로 자신이 가지고 있는 지식이 어느정도인지를 파악하는게 필요합니다. 리눅스 커널을 공부할 때 꼭 필요한 지식은 다음과 같습니다.


@ 유닉스(UNIX) 시스템과 리눅스(LINUX) 시스템에 대한 이해
@ 운영체제에 대한 이해
@ C 언어에 대한 기본적인 지식
@ 자료구조(Data Structure)
@ 약간의 하드웨어적인 지식

무엇보다도 우선 유닉스/리눅스 시스템에 대해서 알아야 합니다. 유닉스에서 프로세스 사이에 부모 자식의 관계가 있다는 사실을 모르고서 프로세스 사이의 친족 관계나 zombi 프로세스를 이해할 수 없을 것입니다. 그리고 운영체제가 무엇을 하려는 것이며, 운영체제에서 중요한 것이 무엇인지를 알아야 합니다. 다음으로 직접 코드를 보지 않는다고 하더라도 프로그래밍 언어적인 개념과 자료구조에 대한 이해는 필수적입니다. 더군다나 커널은 복잡한 자료구조를 유지 관리하므로 자료구조에 익숙해져야 하겠습니다. 마지막으로 조금의 하드웨어적인 지식이 필요합니다.

2. 리눅스 커널 전반에 대한 이해
다음으로 리눅스 커널 전반에 대해서 파악을 해야 합니다. 리눅스 커널을 구성하고 있는 주요 구성요소들과 각각의 역할, 그리고 이의 핵심적인 개념들을 이해를 해야 할 것입니다. 여기서는 특정 하드웨어 구현과 관련된 내용을 살펴볼 필요는 없습니다.
리눅스 커널은 크게 다음과 같은 구성요소로 나누어 볼 수 있습니다.


@ 메모리 관리(Memory Management)
@ 프로세스 관리(Process Management)
@ 파일시스템(Filesystem)
@ 네트웍(Networking)
@ I/O 시스템(I/O System) 또는 디바이스 드라이버(Device Driver)
@ 프로세스간 통신(Interprocess Communication)
@ 인터럽트(interrupt), 예외(exception) 등의 하드웨어적인 처리
@ 기타 커널 메커니즘

이 중에서 가장 중요하게 이해해야 하는 것은 커널의 가장 핵심인 메모리 관리와 프로세스 관리입니다. 이 부분이 중요하기도 하고, 어렵기도 합니다. 파일시스템이나 네트웍, 디바이스 드라이버는 관심이 있는 분들만 보셔도 상관 없습니다. 그리고 프로세스간 통신이나 인터럽트 처리 등은 기본적인 지식만 알아두면 되겠습니다.

각각의 구성요소를 공부하면서 알아야 하는 개념들을 정리하면

2.0 기본 개념
@ 커널 모드(kernel mode)와 사용자 모드(user mode)의 구별
@ 프로그래밍 모델 : 모놀리틱(monolithic) 커널 구조에 대한 이해

2.1 메모리 관리
@ 가상 메모리(virtual memory)의 개념 :
-> 가상 메모리의 개념과 목적
-> 물리적인 메모리(physical memory)와 가상 메모리(virtual memory)의 구별
-> 주소공간(address space)에 대한 이해
@ 페이징(paging)의 개념 :
-> 페이징의 목적과 구현방법
-> 물리적인 페이지(page frame)과 가상 메모리의 페이지의 구별
-> 페이지 테이블(page table)에 대한 이해
@ 핵심 메모리 관리 메커니즘 :
-> 메모리 매핑(memory mapping)
-> 요구 페이징(demand paging)
-> 쓰기시 복사(copy on write)
-> 스와핑(swapping)
-> 공유 메모리(shared memory)
-> 접근 권한(access right)
@ 메모리 할당과 해제 :
-> RAM의 페이지들을 관리하는 방법
-> page 단위의 할당과 해제 방법
-> 슬랩 할당자(slab allocator)에 대한 이해
-> 메모리가 부족할 때 처리하는 방법
@ (Optional) 하드웨어 캐시에 대한 이해

2.2 프로세스 관리
@ 프로세스(process)의 개념
@ 프로세스 상태 : 각각의 상태와 상태 전이도(transition diagram)
@ 멀티 태스킹(multitasking)의 구현 :
-> 선점형 멀티 태스킹(preemptive multitasking)에 대한 이해
-> 스케줄링(scheduling)에 대한 이해
-> 스케줄링 알고리즘(scheduling algorithm)
-> 컨텍스트(context)에 대한 이해
-> 프로세스 전환(task switch/context swich)
@ 프로세스의 생성과 소멸 :
-> fork를 통한 프로세스 생성
-> exec를 통한 프로그램 실행
-> clone을 통한 쓰레드(thread) 생성
-> exit를 통한 프로세스 종료와 소멸
@ 프로세스와 가상 메모리의 관계
@ (Optional) 프로그램의 구조 : ELF binary와 공유 라이브러리(shared library)

2.3 파일시스템
@ 가상 파일시스템(virtual filesystem; VFS)의 구성 :
-> VFS 인터페이스
-> 개별 파일시스템의 인터페이스
-> 버퍼 캐시(buffer cache)
-> 블럭 디바이스 드라이버(block device driver)
@ 개별 파일시스템을 관리하는 방법
@ 파일의 종류와 디렉토리에 대한 개념
@ inode의 개념과 open file의 개념
@ superblock의 개념
@ 파일시스템 마운트(mount)
@ 버퍼 캐시(buffer cache)의 개념과 역할, writeback
@ 캐시 : directory cache, inode cache
@ 특수 파일시스템 : /proc 파일시스템, 장치 파일시스템(device filesystem)
@ (Optional) EXT2 파일시스템의 구조

2.4 네트워킹
@ TCP/IP 네트워킹에 대한 개념
@ 리눅스 네트웍 시스템의 구성 :
-> 파일시스템
-> BSD 소켓 인터페이스(socket interface)
-> 개별 프로토콜 계열(protocol family)의 인터페이스 : INET 인터페이스
-> 실제 프로토콜 : TCP, UDP, IP
-> 하드웨어 장치 : ethernet, ...
@ 소켓 프로그래밍 인터페이스 : bind, listen, accept, connect, send, receive
@ 소켓 버퍼(socket buffer)의 역할
@ 패킷의 전송과정

2.5 디바이스 드라이버
@ 디바이스 드라이버의 역할
@ 장치의 종류, 디바이스 드라이버와 장치 파일(device file)과의 관계
@ 파일과 디바이스 드라이버의 연계

2.6 프로세스간 통신
@ 시그널(signal)
@ 파이프(pipe)
@ 시스템 V IPC :
-> 시스템 V IPC 객체 : IPC 객체(object)의 생성과 관리와 찾기
-> 세마포어(semaphore)
-> 메시지 큐(message queue)
-> 공유 메모리(shared memory)

2.7 하드웨어 메커니즘
@ 인터럽트(interrupt) :
-> 인터럽트의 개념
-> 인터럽트 핸들러의 관리
-> 인터럽트 발생시 처리 과정
@ 예외(exception/trap) :
-> 예외의 개념
-> 예외 발생시 처리 과정
@ 시스템 콜(system call) :
-> 시스템 콜의 개념
-> 시스템 콜이 불렸을 때 처리 과정

2.8 기타 커널 메커니즘
@ 타이머(timer)
@ 작업 후처리 메커니즘 : softirq, 소작업(tasklet), 작업큐(task queue), 하반부 핸들러(bottom half)
@ 대기큐(wait queue)
@ (Optional) SMP(대칭형 멀티 프로세서; symmetric multiprocessor)
-> SMP 시스템의 이해
-> SMP 시스템 locking : 인터럽트 금지, spinlock
-> SMP 시스템 스케줄링
@ 커널 락킹(kernel locking) 메커니즘 : 인터럽트 금지, semaphore

3. 커널에 대한 탐색
이제 커널 전반적인 부분에 대해 이해를 했다면 직접 커널 코드로 보고, 보다 관심있는 부분을 살펴볼 차례입니다. 여기서는 관심에 따라서 직접적인 하드웨어 특유의 구성을 볼 수 있을 것입니다.

@ 커널 이미지의 구성
@ 리눅스 커널의 부팅 과정
@ 스케줄러의 하드웨어적인 구현
@ 페이징의 하드웨어적인 구현
@ 파일시스템의 실질적인 구현
@ TCP/IP 프로토콜의 구현
@ 인터럽트, 예외, 시스템 콜의 하드웨어적인 처리
@ 기타, ...

4. 커널 공부 자료

5. 커널 프로그래밍 자료


  • 관련 링크
  • [분류: 리눅스 커널 인쇄용 페이지 본문 email로 보내기 ]

    <  슬랩 할당자 (Slab Allocator) : An Object-Caching Kernel Memory Allocator | Beginner's Guide Allocation  >
    리눅스 커널 공부하기 | 답장: 2개 | 본문에 답장
    정렬 :  
    icon19.gif EzDoum 2002년 04월 12일 오후 11:43 [ 이글에 답장 | 본문에 답장 | 책갈피 ]
    리눅스 커널 공부 로드맵을 이호님(flyduck)께서
    잘 정리해 주셔서.. 제 지식창고에도 올려놓습니다..

    정말 커널이란 녀석을 이해하기엔
    많은 공부량이 필요한듯 싶네요.. 하지만 이호님
    말씀처럼.. 차근 차근.. 잼있게 하나씩 알아가는
    즐거움이 상당하네요..

    여기 있는 주제들로 제가 이해를 얻은
    좋은 그림이나 글들, 책, 사이트로 내용을
    보충해 보겠습니다...


    [수정]

    답장 EzDoum 2002년 10월 18일 오후 10:59 [ 이글에 답장 | 본문에 답장 | 책갈피 ]
    Index of Documentation for People Interested in Writing and/or

    Understanding the Linux Kernel.

    Juan-Mariano de Goyeneche <jmseyas@dit.upm.es>

    /*
    * The latest version of this document may be found at:
    * http://www.dit.upm.es/~jmseyas/linux/kernel/hackers-docs.html
    */

    The need for a document like this one became apparent in the
    linux-kernel mailing list as the same questions, asking for pointers
    to information, appeared again and again.

    Fortunately, as more and more people get to GNU/Linux, more and more
    get interested in the Kernel. But reading the sources is not always
    enough. It is easy to understand the code, but miss the concepts, the
    philosophy and design decisions behind this code.

    Unfortunately, not many documents are available for beginners to
    start. And, even if they exist, there was no "well-known" place which
    kept track of them. These lines try to cover this lack. All documents
    available on line known by the author are listed, while some reference
    books are also mentioned.

    PLEASE, if you know any paper not listed here or write a new document,
    send me an e-mail, and I'll include a reference to it here. Any
    corrections, ideas or comments are also welcomed.

    The papers that follow are listed in no particular order. All are
    cataloged with the following fields: the document's "Title", the
    "Author"/s, the "URL" where they can be found, some "Keywords" helpful
    when searching for specific topics, and a brief "Description" of the
    Document.

    Enjoy!

    ON-LINE DOCS:

    * Title: "The Linux Kernel"
    Author: David A. Rusling.
    URL: http://www.tldp.org/LDP/tlk/tlk.html
    번역판: http://www.ezdoum.com/upload/TheLinuxKernel.pdf
    Keywords: everything!, book.
    Description: On line, 200 pages book describing most aspects of
    the Linux Kernel. Probably, the first reference for beginners.
    Lots of illustrations explaining data structures use and
    relationships in the purest Richard W. Stevens' style. Contents:
    "1.-Hardware Basics, 2.-Software Basics, 3.-Memory Management,
    4.-Processes, 5.-Interprocess Communication Mechanisms, 6.-PCI,
    7.-Interrupts and Interrupt Handling, 8.-Device Drivers, 9.-The
    File system, 10.-Networks, 11.-Kernel Mechanisms, 12.-Modules,
    13.-The Linux Kernel Sources, A.-Linux Data Structures, B.-The
    Alpha AXP Processor, C.-Useful Web and FTP Sites, D.-The GNU
    General Public License, Glossary". In short: a must have.

    * Title: "The Linux Kernel Hackers' Guide"
    Author: Michael K.Johnson and others.
    URL: http://www.tldp.org/LDP/khg/HyperNews/get/khg.html
    Keywords: everything!
    Description: No more Postscript book-like version. Only HTML now.
    Many people have contributed. The interface is similar to web
    available mailing lists archives. You can find some articles and
    then some mails asking questions about them and/or complementing
    previous contributions. A little bit anarchic in this aspect, but
    with some valuable information in some cases.

    * Title: "Conceptual Architecture of the Linux Kernel"
    Author: Ivan T. Bowman.
    URL: http://plg.uwaterloo.ca/~itbowman/papers/CS746G-a1.html
    Keywords: conceptual software arquitecture, extracted design,
    reverse engineering, system structure.
    Description: Conceptual software arquitecture of the Linux kernel,
    automatically extracted from the source code. Very detailed. Good
    figures. Gives good overall kernel understanding.

    * Title: "Concrete Architecture of the Linux Kernel"
    Author: Ivan T. Bowman, Saheem Siddiqi, and Meyer C. Tanuan.
    URL: http://plg.uwaterloo.ca/~itbowman/papers/CS746G-a2.html
    Keywords: concrete arquitecture, extracted design, reverse
    engineering, system structure, dependencies.
    Description: Concrete arquitecture of the Linux kernel,
    automatically extracted from the source code. Very detailed. Good
    figures. Gives good overall kernel understanding. This papers
    focus on lower details than its predecessor (files, variables...).

    * Title: "Linux as a Case Study: Its Extracted Software
    Architecture"
    Author: Ivan T. Bowman, Richard C. Holt and Neil V. Brewster.
    URL: http://plg.uwaterloo.ca/~itbowman/papers/linuxcase.html
    Keywords: software architecture, architecture recovery,
    redocumentation.
    Description: Paper appeared at ICSE'99, Los Angeles, May 16-22,
    1999. A mixture of the previous two documents from the same
    author.

    * Title: "Overview of the Virtual File System"
    Author: Richard Gooch.
    URL: http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/vfs.txt
    Keywords: VFS, File System, mounting filesystems, opening files,
    dentries, dcache.
    Description: Brief introduction to the Linux Virtual File System.
    What is it, how it works, operations taken when opening a file or
    mounting a file system and description of important data
    structures explaining the purpose of each of their entries.

    * Title: "The Linux RAID-1, 4, 5 Code"
    Author: Ingo Molnar, Gadi Oxman and Miguel de Icaza.
    URL: http://www2.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue44/2391.html
    Keywords: RAID, MD driver.
    Description: Linux Journal Kernel Korner article. Here is it's
    abstract: "A description of the implementation of the RAID-1,
    RAID-4 and RAID-5 personalities of the MD device driver in the
    Linux kernel, providing users with high performance and reliable,
    secondary-storage capability using software".

    * Title: "Dynamic Kernels: Modularized Device Drivers"
    Author: Alessandro Rubini.
    URL: http://www2.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue23/1219.html
    Keywords: device driver, module, loading/unloading modules,
    allocating resources.
    Description: Linux Journal Kernel Korner article. Here is it's
    abstract: "This is the first of a series of four articles
    co-authored by Alessandro Rubini and Georg Zezchwitz which present
    a practical approach to writing Linux device drivers as kernel
    loadable modules. This installment presents an introduction to the
    topic, preparing the reader to understand next month's
    installment".

    * Title: "Dynamic Kernels: Discovery"
    Author: Alessandro Rubini.
    URL: http://www2.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue24/1220.html
    Keywords: character driver, init_module, clean_up module,
    autodetection, mayor number, minor number, file operations,
    open(), close().
    Description: Linux Journal Kernel Korner article. Here is it's
    abstract: "This article, the second of four, introduces part of
    the actual code to create custom module implementing a character
    device driver. It describes the code for module initialization and
    cleanup, as well as the open() and close() system calls".

    * Title: "The Devil's in the Details"
    Author: Georg v. Zezschwitz and Alessandro Rubini.
    URL: http://www2.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue25/1221.html
    Keywords: read(), write(), select(), ioctl(), blocking/non
    blocking mode, interrupt handler.
    Description: Linux Journal Kernel Korner article. Here is it's
    abstract: "This article, the third of four on writing character
    device drivers, introduces concepts of reading, writing, and using
    ioctl-calls".

    * Title: "Dissecting Interrupts and Browsing DMA"
    Author: Alessandro Rubini and Georg v. Zezschwitz.
    URL: http://www2.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue26/1222.html
    Keywords: interrupts, irqs, DMA, bottom halves, task queues.
    Description: Linux Journal Kernel Korner article. Here is it's
    abstract: "This is the fourth in a series of articles about
    writing character device drivers as loadable kernel modules. This
    month, we further investigate the field of interrupt handling.
    Though it is conceptually simple, practical limitations and
    constraints make this an ``interesting'' part of device driver
    writing, and several different facilities have been provided for
    different situations. We also investigate the complex topic of
    DMA".

    * Title: "Device Drivers Concluded"
    Author: Georg v. Zezschwitz.
    URL: http://www2.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue28/1287.html
    Keywords: address spaces, pages, pagination, page management,
    demand loading, swapping, memory protection, memory mapping, mmap,
    virtual memory areas (VMAs), vremap, PCI.
    Description: Finally, the above turned out into a five articles
    series. This latest one's introduction reads: "This is the last of
    five articles about character device drivers. In this final
    section, Georg deals with memory mapping devices, beginning with
    an overall description of the Linux memory management concepts".

    * Title: "Network Buffers And Memory Management"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www2.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue30/1312.html
    Keywords: sk_buffs, network devices, protocol/link layer
    variables, network devices flags, transmit, receive,
    configuration, multicast.
    Description: Linux Journal Kernel Korner. Here is the abstract:
    "Writing a network device driver for Linux is fundamentally
    simple---most of the complexity (other than talking to the
    hardware) involves managing network packets in memory".

    * Title: "Writing Linux Device Drivers"
    Author: Michael K. Johnson.
    URL: http://people.redhat.com/johnsonm/devices.html
    Keywords: files, VFS, file operations, kernel interface, character
    vs block devices, I/O access, hardware interrupts, DMA, access to
    user memory, memory allocation, timers.
    Description: Introductory 50-minutes (sic) tutorial on writing
    device drivers. 12 pages written by the same author of the "Kernel
    Hackers' Guide" which give a very good overview of the topic.

    * Title: "The Venus kernel interface"
    Author: Peter J. Braam.
    URL:
    http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/doc/html/kernel-venus-protocol.html
    Keywords: coda, filesystem, venus, cache manager.
    Description: "This document describes the communication between
    Venus and kernel level file system code needed for the operation
    of the Coda filesystem. This version document is meant to describe
    the current interface (version 1.0) as well as improvements we
    envisage".

    * Title: "Programming PCI-Devices under Linux"
    Author: Claus Schroeter.
    URL:
    ftp://ftp.llp.fu-berlin.de/pub/linux/LINUX-LAB/whitepapers/pcip.ps
    .gz
    Keywords: PCI, device, busmastering.
    Description: 6 pages tutorial on PCI programming under Linux.
    Gives the basic concepts on the architecture of the PCI subsystem,
    as long as basic functions and macros to read/write the devices
    and perform busmastering.

    * Title: "Writing Character Device Driver for Linux"
    Author: R. Baruch and C. Schroeter.
    URL:
    ftp://ftp.llp.fu-berlin.de/pub/linux/LINUX-LAB/whitepapers/drivers
    .ps.gz
    Keywords: character device drivers, I/O, signals, DMA, accessing
    ports in user space, kernel environment.
    Description: 68 pages paper on writing character drivers. A little
    bit old (1.993, 1.994) although still useful.

    * Title: "Design and Implementation of the Second Extended
    Filesystem"
    Author: R?y Card, Theodore Ts'o, Stephen Tweedie.
    URL: http://web.mit.edu/tytso/www/linux/ext2intro.html
    Keywords: ext2, linux fs history, inode, directory, link, devices,
    VFS, physical structure, performance, benchmarks, ext2fs library,
    ext2fs tools, e2fsck.
    Description: Paper written by three of the top ext2 hackers.
    Covers Linux filesystems history, ext2 motivation, ext2 features,
    design, physical structure on disk, performance, benchmarks,
    e2fsck's passes description... A must read!
    Notes: This paper was first published in the Proceedings of the
    First Dutch International Symposium on Linux, ISBN 90-367-0385-9.

    * Title: "Analysis of the Ext2fs structure"
    Author: Louis-Dominique Dubeau.
    URL: http://step.polymtl.ca/~ldd/ext2fs/ext2fs_toc.html
    Keywords: ext2, filesystem, ext2fs.
    Description: Description of ext2's blocks, directories, inodes,
    bitmaps, invariants...

    * Title: "Journaling the Linux ext2fs Filesystem"
    Author: Stephen C. Tweedie.
    URL:
    ftp://ftp.uk.linux.org/pub/linux/sct/fs/jfs/journal-design.ps.gz
    Keywords: ext3, journaling.
    Description: Excellent 8-pages paper explaining the journaling
    capabilities added to ext2 by the author, showing different
    problems faced and the alternatives chosen.

    * Title: "Kernel API changes from 2.0 to 2.2"
    Author: Richard Gooch.
    URL:
    http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/docs/porting-to-2.2.html
    Keywords: 2.2, changes.
    Description: Kernel functions/structures/variables which changed
    from 2.0.x to 2.2.x.

    * Title: "Kernel API changes from 2.2 to 2.4"
    Author: Richard Gooch.
    URL:
    http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/docs/porting-to-2.4.html
    Keywords: 2.4, changes.
    Description: Kernel functions/structures/variables which changed
    from 2.2.x to 2.4.x.

    * Title: "Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide"
    Author: Ori Pomerantz.
    URL: http://www.tldp.org/LDP/lkmpg/mpg.html
    Keywords: modules, GPL book, /proc, ioctls, system calls,
    interrupt handlers .
    Description: Very nice 92 pages GPL book on the topic of modules
    programming. Lots of examples.

    * Title: "Device File System (devfs) Overview"
    Author: Richard Gooch.
    URL: http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/docs/devfs.txt
    Keywords: filesystem, /dev, devfs, dynamic devices, major/minor
    allocation, device management.
    Description: Document describing Richard Gooch's controversial
    devfs, which allows for dynamic devices, only shows present
    devices in /dev, gets rid of major/minor numbers allocation
    problems, and allows for hundreds of identical devices (which some
    USB systems might demand soon).

    * Title: "I/O Event Handling Under Linux"
    Author: Richard Gooch.
    URL: http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/docs/io-events.html
    Keywords: IO, I/O, select(2), poll(2), FDs, aio_read(2), readiness
    event queues.
    Description: From the Introduction: "I/O Event handling is about
    how your Operating System allows you to manage a large number of
    open files (file descriptors in UNIX/POSIX, or FDs) in your
    application. You want the OS to notify you when FDs become active
    (have data ready to be read or are ready for writing). Ideally you
    want a mechanism that is scalable. This means a large number of
    inactive FDs cost very little in memory and CPU time to manage".

    * Title: "The Kernel Hacking HOWTO"
    Author: Various Talented People, and Rusty.
    URL:
    http://www.lisoleg.net/doc/Kernel-Hacking-HOWTO/kernel-hacking-HOW
    TO.html
    Keywords: HOWTO, kernel contexts, deadlock, locking, modules,
    symbols, return conventions.
    Description: From the Introduction: "Please understand that I
    never wanted to write this document, being grossly underqualified,
    but I always wanted to read it, and this was the only way. I
    simply explain some best practices, and give reading entry-points
    into the kernel sources. I avoid implementation details: that's
    what the code is for, and I ignore whole tracts of useful
    routines. This document assumes familiarity with C, and an
    understanding of what the kernel is, and how it is used. It was
    originally written for the 2.3 kernels, but nearly all of it
    applies to 2.2 too; 2.0 is slightly different".

    * Title: "ALSA 0.5.0 Developer documentation"
    Author: Stephan 'Jumpy' Bartels .
    URL: http://www.math.TU-Berlin.de/~sbartels/alsa/
    Keywords: ALSA, sound, soundcard, driver, lowlevel, hardware.
    Description: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture for developers,
    both at kernel and user-level sides. Work in progress. ALSA is
    supposed to be Linux's next generation sound architecture.

    * Title: "Programming Guide for Linux USB Device Drivers"
    Author: Detlef Fliegl.
    URL: http://usb.in.tum.de/usbdoc/
    Keywords: USB, universal serial bus.
    Description: A must-read. From the Preface: "This document should
    give detailed information about the current state of the USB
    subsystem and its API for USB device drivers. The first section
    will deal with the basics of USB devices. You will learn about
    different types of devices and their properties. Going into detail
    you will see how USB devices communicate on the bus. The second
    section gives an overview of the Linux USB subsystem [2] and the
    device driver framework. Then the API and its data structures will
    be explained step by step. The last section of this document
    contains a reference of all API calls and their return codes".
    Notes: Beware: the main page states: "This document may not be
    published, printed or used in excerpts without explicit permission
    of the author". Fortunately, it may still be read...

    * Title: "Tour Of the Linux Kernel Source"
    Author: Vijo Cherian.
    URL: http://www.geocities.com/vijoc/tolks/tolks.html
    Keywords: .
    Description: A classic of this page! Was lost for a while and is
    back again. Thanks Vijo! TOLKS: the name says it all. A tour of
    the sources, describing directories, files, variables, data
    structures... It covers general stuff, device drivers,
    filesystems, IPC and Networking Code.

    * Title: "Linux Kernel Mailing List Glossary"
    Author: John Levon.
    URL: http://www.movement.uklinux.net/glossary.html
    Keywords: glossary, terms, linux-kernel.
    Description: From the introduction: "This glossary is intended as
    a brief description of some of the acronyms and terms you may hear
    during discussion of the Linux kernel".

    * Title: "Linux Kernel Locking HOWTO"
    Author: Various Talented People, and Rusty.
    URL:
    http://netfilter.kernelnotes.org/unreliable-guides/kernel-locking-
    HOWTO.html
    Keywords: locks, locking, spinlock, semaphore, atomic, race
    condition, bottom halves, tasklets, softirqs.
    Description: The title says it all: document describing the
    locking system in the Linux Kernel either in uniprocessor or SMP
    systems.
    Notes: "It was originally written for the later (>2.3.47) 2.3
    kernels, but most of it applies to 2.2 too; 2.0 is slightly
    different". Freely redistributable under the conditions of the GNU
    General Public License.

    * Title: "Porting Linux 2.0 Drivers To Linux 2.2: Changes and New
    Features "
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-05/gear_01.html
    Keywords: ports, porting.
    Description: Article from Linux Magazine on porting from 2.0 to
    2.2 kernels.

    * Title: "Porting Device Drivers To Linux 2.2: part II"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-06/gear_01.html
    Keywords: ports, porting.
    Description: Second part on porting from 2.0 to 2.2 kernels.

    * Title: "How To Make Sure Your Driver Will Work On The Power
    Macintosh"
    Author: Paul Mackerras.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-07/gear_01.html
    Keywords: Mac, Power Macintosh, porting, drivers, compatibility.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "An Introduction to SCSI Drivers"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-08/gear_01.html
    Keywords: SCSI, device, driver.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "Advanced SCSI Drivers And Other Tales"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-09/gear_01.html
    Keywords: SCSI, device, driver, advanced.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "Writing Linux Mouse Drivers"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-10/gear_01.html
    Keywords: mouse, driver, gpm.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "More on Mouse Drivers"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-11/gear_01.html
    Keywords: mouse, driver, gpm, races, asynchronous I/O.
    Description: The title still says it all.

    * Title: "Writing Video4linux Radio Driver"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/1999-12/gear_01.html
    Keywords: video4linux, driver, radio, radio devices.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "Video4linux Drivers, Part 1: Video-Capture Device"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/2000-01/gear_01.html
    Keywords: video4linux, driver, video capture, capture devices,
    camera driver.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "Video4linux Drivers, Part 2: Video-capture Devices"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/2000-02/gear_01.html
    Keywords: video4linux, driver, video capture, capture devices,
    camera driver, control, query capabilities, capability, facility.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "PCI Management in Linux 2.2"
    Author: Alan Cox.
    URL: http://www.linux-mag.com/2000-03/gear_01.html
    Keywords: PCI, bus, bus-mastering.
    Description: The title says it all.

    * Title: "Linux 2.4 Kernel Internals"
    Author: Tigran Aivazian and Christoph Hellwig.
    URL: http://www.moses.uklinux.net/patches/lki.html
    Keywords: Linux, kernel, booting, SMB boot, VFS, page cache.
    Description: A little book used for a short training course.
    Covers building the kernel image, booting (including SMP bootup),
    process management, VFS and more.

    * Title: "Linux IP Networking. A Guide to the Implementation and
    Modification of the Linux Protocol Stack."
    Author: Glenn Herrin.
    URL:
    http://kernelnewbies.org/documents/ipnetworking/linuxipnetworking.
    html
    Keywords: network, networking, protocol, IP, UDP, TCP, connection,
    socket, receiving, transmitting, forwarding, routing, packets,
    modules, /proc, sk_buff, FIB, tags.
    Description: Excellent paper devoted to the Linux IP Networking,
    explaining anything from the kernel's to the user space
    configuration tools' code. Very good to get a general overview of
    the kernel networking implementation and understand all steps
    packets follow from the time they are received at the network
    device till they are delivered to applications. The studied kernel
    code is from 2.2.14 version. Provides code for a working packet
    dropper example.

    * Title: "Get those boards talking under Linux."
    Author: Alex Ivchenko.
    URL: http://www.ednmag.com/ednmag/reg/2000/06222000/13df2.htm
    Keywords: data-acquisition boards, drivers, modules, interrupts,
    memory allocation.
    Description: Article written for people wishing to make their data
    acquisition boards work on their GNU/Linux machines. Gives a basic
    overview on writting drivers, from the naming of functions to
    interrupt handling.
    Notes: Two-parts article. Part II is at
    http://www.ednmag.com/ednmag/reg/2000/07062000/14df.htm

    * Title: "Linux PCMCIA Programmer's Guide"
    Author: David Hinds.
    URL: http://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/ftp/doc/PCMCIA-PROG.html
    Keywords: PCMCIA.
    Description: "This document describes how to write kernel device
    drivers for the Linux PCMCIA Card Services interface. It also
    describes how to write user-mode utilities for communicating with
    Card Services.

    * Title: "The Linux Kernel NFSD Implementation"
    Author: Neil Brown.
    URL:
    http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~neilb/oss/linux-commentary/nfsd.html
    Keywords: knfsd, nfsd, NFS, RPC, lockd, mountd, statd.
    Description: The title says it all.
    Notes: Covers knfsd's version 1.4.7 (patch against 2.2.7 kernel).

    * Title: "A Linux vm README"
    Author: Kanoj Sarcar.
    URL: http://reality.sgi.com/kanoj_engr/vm229.html
    Keywords: virtual memory, mm, pgd, vma, page, page flags, page
    cache, swap cache, kswapd.
    Description: Telegraphic, short descriptions and definitions
    relating the Linux virtual memory implementation.

    * Title: "(nearly) Complete Linux Loadable Kernel Modules. The
    definitive guide for hackers, virus coders and system
    administrators."
    Author: pragmatic/THC.
    URL: http://packetstorm.securify.com/groups/thc/LKM_HACKING.html
    Keywords: syscalls, intercept, hide, abuse, symbol table.
    Description: Interesting paper on how to abuse the Linux kernel in
    order to intercept and modify syscalls, make
    files/directories/processes invisible, become root, hijack ttys,
    write kernel modules based virus... and solutions for admins to
    avoid all those abuses.
    Notes: For 2.0.x kernels. Gives guidances to port it to 2.2.x
    kernels. Also available in txt format at
    http://www.blacknemesis.org/hacking/txt/cllkm.txt

    BOOKS: (Not on-line)

    * Title: "Linux Device Drivers"
    Author: Alessandro Rubini.
    Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates.
    Date: 1998.
    Pages: 439.
    ISBN: 1-56592-292-1

    * Title: "Linux Device Drivers, 2nd Edition"
    Author: Alessandro Rubini and Jonathan Corbet.
    Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates.
    Date: 2001.
    Pages: 586.
    ISBN: 0-59600-008-1
    Notes: Further information in
    http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/linuxdrive2/

    * Title: "Linux Kernel Internals"
    Author: Michael Beck.
    Publisher: Addison-Wesley.
    Date: 1997.
    ISBN: 0-201-33143-8 (second edition)

    * Title: "The Design of the UNIX Operating System"
    Author: Maurice J. Bach.
    Publisher: Prentice Hall.
    Date: 1986.
    Pages: 471.
    ISBN: 0-13-201757-1

    * Title: "The Design and Implementation of the 4.3 BSD UNIX
    Operating System"
    Author: Samuel J. Leffler, Marshall Kirk McKusick, Michael J.
    Karels, John S. Quarterman.
    Publisher: Addison-Wesley.
    Date: 1989 (reprinted with corrections on October, 1990).
    ISBN: 0-201-06196-1

    * Title: "The Design and Implementation of the 4.4 BSD UNIX
    Operating System"
    Author: Marshall Kirk McKusick, Keith Bostic, Michael J. Karels,
    John S. Quarterman.
    Publisher: Addison-Wesley.
    Date: 1996.
    ISBN: 0-201-54979-4

    * Title: "Programmation Linux 2.0 API systeme et fonctionnement du
    noyau"
    Author: Remy Card, Eric Dumas, Franck Mevel.
    Publisher: Eyrolles.
    Date: 1997.
    Pages: 520.
    ISBN: 2-212-08932-5
    Notes: French.

    * Title: "The Linux Kernel Book"
    Author: Remy Card, Eric Dumas, Franck Mevel.
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons.
    Date: 1998.
    ISBN: 0-471-98141-9
    Notes: English translation.

    * Title: "Linux 2.0"
    Author: Remy Card, Eric Dumas, Franck Mevel.
    Publisher: Gesti? 2000.
    Date: 1997.
    Pages: 501.
    ISBN: 8-480-88208-5
    Notes: Spanish translation.

    * Title: "Unix internals -- the new frontiers"
    Author: Uresh Vahalia.
    Publisher: Prentice Hall.
    Date: 1996.
    Pages: 600.
    ISBN: 0-13-101908-2

    * Title: "Linux Core Kernel Commentary. Guide to Insider's Knowledge
    on the Core Kernel of the Linux Code"
    Author: Scott Maxwell.
    Publisher: Coriolis.
    Date: 1999.
    Pages: 592.
    ISBN: 1-57610-469-9
    Notes: CD-ROM included. Line by line commentary of the kernel
    code.

    * Title: "Linux IP Stacks Commentary"
    Author: Stephen Satchell and HBJ Clifford.
    Publisher: Coriolis.
    Date: 2000.
    Pages: ???.
    ISBN: 1-57610-470-2
    Notes: Line by line source code commentary book.

    * Title: "Programming for the real world - POSIX.4"
    Author: Bill O. Gallmeister.
    Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc..
    Date: 1995.
    Pages: ???.
    ISBN: I-56592-074-0
    Notes: Though not being directly about Linux, Linux aims to be
    POSIX. Good reference.

    * Title: "Understanding the Linux Kernel"
    Author: Daniel P. Bovet and Marco Cesati.
    Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc..
    Date: 2000.
    Pages: 702.
    ISBN: 0-596-00002-2
    Notes: Further information in
    http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/linuxkernel/

    MISCELLANEOUS:

    * Name: linux/Documentation
    Author: Many.
    URL: Just look inside your kernel sources.
    Keywords: anything, DocBook.
    Description: Documentation that comes with the kernel sources,
    inside the Documentation directory. Some pages from this document
    (including this document itself) have been moved there, and might
    be more up to date than the web version.

    * Name: "Linux Source Driver"
    URL: http://lsd.linux.cz
    Keywords: Browsing source code.
    Description: "Linux Source Driver (LSD) is an application, which
    can make browsing source codes of Linux kernel easier than you can
    imagine. You can select between multiple versions of kernel (e.g.
    0.01, 1.0.0, 2.0.33, 2.0.34pre13, 2.0.0, 2.1.101 etc.). With LSD
    you can search Linux kernel (fulltext, macros, types, functions
    and variables) and LSD can generate patches for you on the fly
    (files, directories or kernel)".

    * Name: "Linux Kernel Source Reference"
    Author: Thomas Graichen.
    URL: http://innominate.org/~graichen/projects/lksr/
    Keywords: CVS, web, cvsweb, browsing source code.
    Description: Web interface to a CVS server with the kernel
    sources. "Here you can have a look at any file of the Linux kernel
    sources of any version starting from 1.0 up to the (daily updated)
    current version available. Also you can check the differences
    between two versions of a file".

    * Name: "Cross-Referencing Linux"
    URL: http://lxr.linux.no/source/
    Keywords: Browsing source code.
    Description: Another web-based Linux kernel source code browser.
    Lots of cross references to variables and functions. You can see
    where they are defined and where they are used.

    * Name: "Linux Weekly News"
    URL: http://lwn.net
    Keywords: latest kernel news.
    Description: The title says it all. There's a fixed kernel section
    summarizing developers' work, bug fixes, new features and versions
    produced during the week. Published every Thursday.

    * Name: "Kernel Traffic"
    URL: http://kt.zork.net/kernel-traffic/
    Keywords: linux-kernel mailing list, weekly kernel news.
    Description: Weekly newsletter covering the most relevant
    discussions of the linux-kernel mailing list.

    * Name: "CuTTiNG.eDGe.LiNuX"
    URL: http://edge.kernelnotes.org
    Keywords: changelist.
    Description: Site which provides the changelist for every kernel
    release. What's new, what's better, what's changed. Myrdraal reads
    the patches and describes them. Pointers to the patches are there,
    too.

    * Name: "New linux-kernel Mailing List FAQ"
    URL: http://www.tux.org/lkml/
    Keywords: linux-kernel mailing list FAQ.
    Description: linux-kernel is a mailing list for developers to
    communicate. This FAQ builds on the previous linux-kernel mailing
    list FAQ maintained by Frohwalt Egerer, who no longer maintains
    it. Read it to see how to join the mailing list. Dozens of
    interesting questions regarding the list, Linux, developers (who
    is ...?), terms (what is...?) are answered here too. Just read it.

    * Name: "Linux Virtual File System"
    Author: Peter J. Braam.
    URL: http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/doc/talks/linuxvfs/
    Keywords: slides, VFS, inode, superblock, dentry, dcache.
    Description: Set of slides, presumably from a presentation on the
    Linux VFS layer. Covers version 2.1.x, with dentries and the
    dcache.

    * Name: "Gary's Encyclopedia - The Linux Kernel"
    Author: Gary (I suppose...).
    URL: http://members.aa.net/~swear/pedia/kernel.html
    Keywords: links, not found here?.
    Description: Gary's Encyclopedia exists to allow the rapid finding
    of documentation and other information of interest to GNU/Linux
    users. It has about 4000 links to external pages in 150 major
    categories. This link is for kernel-specific links, documents,
    sites... Look there if you could not find here what you were
    looking for.

    * Name: "The home page of Linux-MM"
    Author: The Linux-MM team.
    URL: http://linux-mm.org/
    Keywords: memory management, Linux-MM, mm patches, TODO, docs,
    mailing list.
    Description: Site devoted to Linux Memory Management development.
    Memory related patches, HOWTOs, links, mm developers... Don't miss
    it if you are interested in memory management development!

    * Name: "Kernel Newbies IRC Channel"
    URL: http://www.kernelnewbies.org
    Keywords: IRC, newbies, channel, asking doubts.
    Description: #kernelnewbies on irc.openprojects.net. From the web
    page: "#kernelnewbies is an IRC network dedicated to the 'newbie'
    kernel hacker. The audience mostly consists of people who are
    learning about the kernel, working on kernel projects or
    professional kernel hackers that want to help less seasoned kernel
    people. [...] #kernelnewbies is on the Open Projects IRC Network,
    try irc.openprojects.net or irc.<country>.openprojects.net as your
    server and then /join #kernelnewbies". It also hosts articles,
    documents, FAQs...

    * Name: "linux-kernel mailing list archives and search engines"
    URL: http://www.uwsg.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/index.html
    URL: http://www.kernelnotes.org/lnxlists/linux-kernel/
    URL: http://www.geocrawler.com
    Keywords: linux-kernel, archives, search.
    Description: Some of the linux-kernel mailing list archivers. If
    you have a better/another one, please let me know.
    _________________________________________________________________

    Document last updated on Thu Jun 28 15:09:39 CEST 2001
    [수정]

    리눅스 커널 공부하기 | 답장: 2개 | 본문에 답장
    정렬 :  

    답장 쓰기
    글을 올리시려면 로그인 (사용자 등록) 하셔야 합니다.

    검색
    Google

    분류
    ·공지 (6)
    ·인터넷 (87)
    ·하드웨어 (260)
    ·C/C++ (65)
    ·어셈블리 (7)
    ·리눅스 (136)
    ·리눅스 커널 (67)
    ·윈도우즈 (25)
    ·데이터베이스 (20)
    ·보안 (16)
    ·.NET (25)
    ·그래픽 (13)
    ·책소개 (42)
    ·호기심 천국 (80)
    ·잡담 (111)
    ·사랑 (3)

    전체 본문수: 963
    전체 답장수: 525


    분류 : 리눅스 커널
    최근글
    최근글
    가장 많이 읽은 글
    ·리눅스 커널 공부하기 (2)
    뜨거운 감자
    ·SunWorld Online (4)

    EzDoum투표
    이지도움 어때요?
    이게 뭐야. 다시 안올란다. --;
    아이 좋아라~ +_+;
    관심없다.
    먼가는 있는거 같은데 뭐하는 곳이지?
    기타 (자유게시판에 글로 남겨 주세요)
    [ 결과 | 투표 ]

    랜덤 링크
    http://kldp.net


     Home ^ BACK TO TOP ^ EzDoum - 도움이 필요하세요~??
     Powered by KorWeblog 1.5.8 Copyleft © 2001 EzDoum, 관리자: EzDoum